Presto follows the SQL Standard faithfully. We extend it only when it is well justified,
we strive to never break it and we always prefer the standard way of doing things.
There was one situation where we stumbled, though. We had a non-standard way of limiting
query results with
LIMIT n without implementing the standard way of doing that first.
We have corrected that, adding ANSI SQL way of limiting query results, discarding initial
results and – a hidden gem – retaining initial results in case of ties.
Limiting query results
Probably everyone using relational databases knows the
LIMIT n syntax for limiting query
results. It is supported by e.g. MySQL, PostgreSQL and many more SQL engines following
their example. It is so common that one could think that
LIMIT n is the standard way
of limiting the query results. Let’s have a look at how various popular SQL engines
provide this feature.
- DB2, MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Redshift, MemSQL, SQLite and many others provide the
... LIMIT nsyntax.
- SQL Server provides
SELECT TOP n ...syntax.
- Oracle provides
... WHERE ROWNUM <= nsyntax.
And what does the SQL Standard say?
SELECT * FROM my_table FETCH FIRST n ROWS ONLY
If we look again at the database systems mentioned above, it turns out many of them support the standard syntax too: Oracle, DB2, SQL Server and PostgreSQL (although that’s not documented currently).
And Presto? Presto has
LIMIT n support since 2012. In Presto 310,
we added also the
FETCH FIRST n ROWS ONLY support.
Let’s have a look beyond the limits.
FETCH FIRST n ROWS ONLY syntax is way more verbose than the short
LIMIT n syntax Presto
always supported (and still does). However, it is also more powerful: it allows selecting rows “top n,
ties included”. Consider a case where you want to list top 3 students with highest score on an exam.
What happens if the 3rd, 4th and 5th persons have equal score? Which
one should be returned? Instead of getting an arbitrary (and indeterminate) result you can use
FETCH FIRST n ROWS WITH TIES syntax:
SELECT student_name, score FROM student s JOIN exam_result e ON s.id = e.student_id ORDER BY score FETCH FIRST 3 ROWS WITH TIES
FETCH FIRST n ROWS WITH TIES clause retains all rows with equal values of the ordering keys (the
ORDER BY clause) as
the last row that would be returned by the
FETCH FIRST n ROWS ONLY clause.
Per the SQL Standard, the
FETCH FIRST n ROWS ONLY clause can be prepended with
OFFSET m, to skip
m initial rows.
In such a case, it makes sense to use
FETCH NEXT ... variant of the clause – it’s allowed with and without
but definitely looks better with that clause.
SELECT student_name, score FROM student s JOIN exam_result e ON s.id = e.student_id ORDER BY score OFFSET 5 FETCH NEXT 3 ROWS WITH TIES
As an extension to SQL Standard, and for the brevity of this syntax, we also allow
SELECT student_name, score FROM student s JOIN exam_result e ON s.id = e.student_id ORDER BY score OFFSET 5 LIMIT 3
FETCH FIRST ... ROWS ONLY,
FETCH FIRST ... WITH TIES and
OFFSET are powerful and very useful clauses
that come especially handy when writing ad-hoc queries over big data sets. They offer certain syntactic freedom beyond
what is described here, so check out documentation of OFFSET Clause and
LIMIT or FETCH FIRST Clauses for all the options.
Since semantics of these clauses depend on query results being well ordered, they are best used with
ORDER BY that
defines proper ordering. Without proper ordering the results are arbitrary (except for
WITH TIES) which may or may
not be a problem, depending on the use case.
For scheduled queries, or queries that are part of some workflow (as opposed to ad-hoc), we recommend using query
predicates (where relevant) instead of
OFFSET. Read more at